The Radiologist's Primer to Imaging the Noncuff, Nonlabral Postoperative Shoulder.
Radiographics. 2018 Jan-Feb;38(1):149-168. doi: 10.1148/rg.2018170061. Epub 2017 Nov 22. Smith CR1, Yoon JT1, Long JR1, Friedman MV1, Hillen TJ1, Stensby JD1.
Many radiologists are familiar with the preoperative imaging assessment of patients with labral tears, rotator cuff abnormalities, and end-stage arthritis, as well as the subsequent primary reconstructions and repairs commonly encountered in routine clinical management. However, the second-line surgical procedures and augmentation procedures performed for refractory or recurrent shoulder instability and the extra-articular surgical procedures of the shoulder girdle may challenge even the most experienced musculoskeletal radiologist. Knowledge of the indications, surgical techniques, expected postoperative imaging appearance, and complications of these uncommon shoulder girdle reconstructions and repairs will aid the radiologist in both the pre- and postoperative assessment of the injured shoulder. This article is divided into two parts. In the first part, procedures performed for shoulder instability are addressed, including capsular shift, Bristow-Latarjet coracoid transfer, remplissage, and humeral head allografts. In the second part, the imaging findings of extra-articular procedures of the shoulder girdle are reviewed, including biceps tenodesis, os acromiale fixation, and coracoclavicular ligament reconstruction. ©RSNA, 2017.